Prevalence and determinants of mental distress during COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh: evidence from an online survey
Viewed = 192 time(s)
Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic and life-threatening highly infectious disease outbreak. The people of Bangladesh are at high risk of COVID-19 and have already experienced various socio-economic, Physical health, and psychological consequences. Particularly, mental health problems are dominantly reported in the literature and should be controlled. The main objective of this epidemiological study is to assess the mental distress and identify its determinants using an online-based survey. Such information is urgently needed to develop feasible strategies for Bangladesh. An online survey was conducted for this study from May 01 to May 05, 2020. A total of 240 respondents provided self-reported online responses. Respondent’s mental distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) and by the self-rated mental health (SRMH) questions. Various kinds of statistical analyses ranging from simple to multivariable logistic recession were performed using SPSS 23.0. About 31.3% and 48.3% of respondents were mentally distressed by GHQ-12 and SRMH questions, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mental distress was significantly higher among those respondents, whose usual activity was affected by the coronavirus (OR = 6.40, 95% CI: 1.87 - 21.90, p<0.001) and whose financial stress was increased due to lockdown (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.01 – 4.46, p<0.05) on GHQ-12. Female sex (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.03 – 3.75, p<0.05) and respondents with poor mental health before the outbreak (OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.18 – 9.72, p<0.05) were also significantly affected by mental distress on SRMH. At least thirty-one percent of the respondents were found to be mentally distressed. Some of the study findings, particularly significant determinants, should be considered while developing strategies to reduce the burden of mental distress among study respondents or similar groups.
van der Hoek L, Pyrc K, Jebbink MF, et al. Identification of a new human coronavirus. Nat Med. 2004;10(4):368-373. doi:10.1038/nm1024
Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern [published correction appears in Lancet. 2020 Jan 29;:]. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):470-473. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30185-9
WHO, 2020a, Novel Coronavirus(2019-nCoV) Situation Report – 12, URL https:// https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200201-sitrep-12-ncov.pdf?sfvrsn=273c5d35_2
WHO, 2020b. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 51. URL https://
Johns Hopkins. (2020). COVID-19 Global Cases. Available online at: www.coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html/.
Liang L, Ren H, Cao R, et al. The Effect of COVID-19 on Youth Mental Health. Psychiatr Q. 2020;91(3):841-852. doi:10.1007/s11126-020-09744-3
Hossain I, Khan MH, Rahman MS, Mullick AR, Aktaruzzaman MM. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel Coronavirus Diseases [COVID-19] in Bangladesh: A descriptive study. Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Research. 2020; 8: 145-151. DOI: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2020.02.003. 34.
Worldmeter,2020a, Coronavirus (COVID-19) Mortality Rate, Available online at :https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/coronavirus-death-rate.
WHO,2020c. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) situation report – 52, URL https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/20200312-sitrep-52-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=e2bfc9c0_2
Worldmeter,2020b, COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic. Available online at: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus. (Access August 10,2020)
Wang, Cuiyan; Pan, Riyu; Wan, Xiaoyang; Tan, Yilin; Xu, Linkang; Ho, Cyrus S.; Ho, Roger C. "Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2020; 17, no. 5: 1729.
IEDCR,2020, Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research (IEDCR). Bangladesh Covid-19 Update. 24 May 2020. Available online: http://iedcr.gov.bd.
M. S. Rana, “Effect of COVID-19 in Bangladesh: Challenge and Overcome”, J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol. Educ.2020; vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 53-68.
Anwar S, Nasrullah M and Hosen MJ. COVID-19 and Bangladesh: Challenges and How to Address Them. Front. Public Health. 2020; 8:154. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2020.00154
Cullen W, Gulati G, Kelly BD . Mental health in the Covid-19 pandemic. Quarterly Journal of Medicine. 2020; 113(5), 311–312. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcaa110
Bao, Y., Sun, Y., Meng, S., Shi, J., & Lu, L. 2019-nCoV epidemic: address mental health care to empower society. Lancet (London, England), 2020; 395(10224), e37–e38. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30309-3
Mamun, M. A., & Griffiths, M. D. First COVID-19 suicide case in Bangladesh due to fear of COVID-19 and xenophobia: Possible suicide prevention strategies. Asian journal of psychiatry, 2020; 51, 102073. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102073.
Schmitter, Philippe. ‘The Design of Social and Political Research’. In Della Porta and Keating (eds) Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2008; (ch 14)
Goldberg DP, Gater R, Sartorius N et al. The validity of two versions of the GHQ in the WHO study of mental illness in general heath care. Psychol. Med. 1997; 27: 191– 197.
Rabbani A, Biju NR, Rizwan A, Sarker M. Social network analysis of psychological morbidity in an urban slum of Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study based on a community census. BMJ Open. 2018;8(7):e020180. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020180.
Kashyap, G.C., Singh, S.K. Reliability and validity of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) for male tannery workers: a study carried out in Kanpur, India. BMC Psychiatry 2017; 17, 102. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-017-1253-y
Makowska, Zofia & Merecz, Dorota & Mościcka-Teske, Agnieszka & Kolasa, Wojciech. The Validity of General Health Questionnaires, GHQ-12 and GHQ-28, in Mental Health Studies of Working People. International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health. 2002; 15. 353-62.
Mawani, Farah & Gilmour, Heather. Validation of self-rated mental health. Health reports / Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information = Rapports sur la santé / Statistique Canada, Centre canadien d'information sur la santé. 2010; 21. 61-75.
Dai, Yuhong & Hu, Guangyuan & Xiong, Huihua & Qiu, Hong & Yuan, Xianglin. Psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on healthcare workers in China. 2020; 10.1101/2020.03.03.20030874.
Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, Chen H, Mao Y, Chen S, et al. Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. PLoS ONE. 2020;15(4): e0231924. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231924
Rajkumar R. P. COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian journal of psychiatry, 2020; 52, 102066. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102066
Almutairi, K. M. et. al. Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Coronavirus Pandemic Among Public in Saudi Arabia., Fam Community Health. 2015 Oct-Dec;38 (4):332-40.
Ranjan R, Ranjan GK. Knowledge regarding prevention of Novel Coronavirus (COVID‐19): An electronic cross‐sectional survey among selected rural community. Inter J Trend Sci Res Develop. 2020; 4: 422– 426.
Bhuiyan, A K M & Sakib, Najmuj & Pakpour, Amir & Griffiths, Mark & Mamun, Mohammed. COVID-19-related suicides in Bangladesh due to lockdown and economic factors: Case study evidence. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2020;10.1007/s11469-020-00307-y.
Zhang, Y.; Ma, Z.F. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health and Quality of Life among Local Residents in Liaoning Province, China: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health ,2020; 17, 2381
Lim GY, Tam WW, Lu Y, Ho CS, Zhang MW, Ho RC . Prevalence of Depression in the Community from 30 Countries between 1994 and 2014. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):2861. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-21243.
Patnaik, Neela & Maji, Saikat. Psychological Issues and Stress on People in the Purview of COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown.Food and Scientific Reports. 2020; ISSN 2582-5437 │Volume 1: Special issue │Page 36
Salles, Mariana & Barros, Sônia. The effect of mental illness on the activity of daily living: A challenge for mental health care. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem.2009; 22. 11-16.
Usher, K., Bhullar, N. and Jackson, D. Life in the pandemic: Social isolation and mental health. J Clin Nurs. 2020; doi:10.1111/jocn.15290
Frasquilho, D., Matos, M., Salonna, F. et al. Mental health outcomes in times of economic recession: a systematic literature review. BMC Public Health 2015;16, 115. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-2720-y.
Holmes EA, O'Connor RC, Perry VH, et al. Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. Lancet Psychiatry.2020;7(6):547‐560. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168-1
Chatterjee SS, Barikar C M, Mukherjee A. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pre-existing mental health problems. Asian J Psychiatr.2020;51:102071. doi:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102071.
Silva AG, Miranda DM, Diaz AP, Teles ALS, Malloy-Diniz LF, Palha AP. Mental health: why it still matters in the midst of a pandemic. Braz J Psychiatry.2020;42(3):229-231 Epub April 3 2020 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-0009
Oli Ahmed, Md Zahir Ahmed, Sheikh Md. Abu Hena Mostafa Alim, M. D. Arif Uddin Khan & Mary C. Jobe (2020) COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh and associated psychological problems: An online survey, Death Studies, DOI: 10.1080/07481187.2020.1818884
Ornell F, Schuch JB, Sordi AO, Kessler FHP. "Pandemic fear" and COVID-19: mental health burden and strategies. Braz J Psychiatry.2020;42(3):232-235 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-0008
Hawryluck, L., Gold, W. L., Robinson, S., Pogorski, S., Galea, S., & Styra, R. SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerging infectious diseases,2004; 10(7), 1206–1212. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1007.030703.
Perrin, P. C., McCabe, O. L., Everly, G. S., & Links, J. M. Preparing for an influenza pandemic: mental health considerations. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 2009;24(3), 223–230.
Copyright (c) 2021 Shilpi Rani Saha, Dr. Md. Mobarak Hossain Khan (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.